Klinische Studien zur Misteltherapie der Krebserkrankung – Eine Übersicht

Gunver S. Kienle, Helmut Kiene
Artikel-ID: DMS-20791-DE

Die onkologische Misteltherapie ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten integrativen Krebstherapien. Es gibt eine Vielzahl klinischer Studien, die die Wirksamkeit der Mistel in Bezug auf die Tumorrückbildung, den Einfluss auf die Verbesserung der Lebensqualität und die Verlängerung der Lebenszeit, die Verminderung der Nebenwirkungen konventioneller Therapien, die Sicherheit und Verträglichkeit einzelner Präparate und weitere Aspekte untersuchen. Der Artikel bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der klinischen Forschung zur Misteltherapie, stellt Schwerpunkte und Ergebnisse einzelner Studien dar und benennt die methodischen Herausforderungen, denen die klinische Mistelforschung gegenübersteht.

Clinical trials of mistletoe therapy for cancer – A review

In oncology, mistletoe therapy is one of the most frequently used integrative cancer therapies. Numerous clinical trials have been done to assess the efficacy of mistletoe with regard to tumour control, quality of life and survival, influence on side effects of conventional therapies, safety and tolerability of the individual products and other aspects. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status in mistletoe therapy research, outlines focal points and presents results of individual trials and studies. The methodological challenges that have to be faced in clinical mistletoe research are discussed.

1 Fasching PA, Thiel F, Nicolaisen-Murmann K, et al. Association of complementary methods with quality of life and life satisfaction in patients with gynecologic and breast malignancies. Support Care Cancer 2007;55(11):1277–1284. [Crossref]

2 Molassiotis A, Fernandez-Ortega P, Pud D, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients: a European survey. Annals of Oncology 2005;16(4):655–663. [Crossref]

3 Molassiotis A, Scott JA, Kearney N, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use in breast cancer patients in Europe. Support Care Cancer 2006;14(3):260–267. [Crossref]

4 Schwabe U, Paffrath D (Hg). Arzneiverordnungsreport 2005. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2005.

5 Petru E, Schmied P, Petru C. Komplementäre Maßnahmen bei Patientinnen mit gynäkologischen Malignomen unter Chemo- und Hormontherapie – Bestandsaufnahme und kritische Überlegungen für die Praxis. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2001;61:75–78. [Crossref]

6 Horneber M, Bueschel G, Dennert G, Less D, Ritter E, Zwahlen M. How many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2012;11(3):187–203. [Crossref]

7 Kremser T, Evans A, Moore A, et al. Use of complementary therapies by Australian women with breast cancer. Breast 2008;17(4):387–394. [Crossref]

8 King N, Balneaves LG, Levin GT, et al. Surveys of cancer patients and cancer health care providers regarding complementary therapy use, communication, and information needs. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2015;14(6):515–524. [Crossref]

9 Nissen N, Lunde A, Pedersen CG, and Johannessen H. The use of complementary and alternative medicine after the completion of hospital treatment for colorectal cancer: findings from a questionnaire study in Denmark. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014;14:388. [Crossref]

10 Tautz E, Momm F, Hasenburg A, Guethlin C. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in breast cancer patients and their experiences: a cross-sectional study. European Journal of Cancer 2012;48(17):3133–3139. [Crossref]

11 Münstedt K, von Georgi R. Unkonventionelle Krebstherapien – Vergleich von Einstellungen und Kenntnissen bei Ärzten in Deutschland und Griechenland. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2005;12:254–260. [Crossref]

12 Kienle GS, Kiene H. Die Mistel in der Onkologie – Fakten und konzeptionelle Grundlagen. Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer Verlag; 2003.

13 Büssing A. Mistletoe. The Genus Viscum. Amsterdam: Hardwood Academic Publishers; 2000.

14 Franz H, Kindt A, Ziska P, Bielka H, Benndorf R, Venker L. The toxic A-chain of mistletoe lectin I: isolation and its effect on cell-free protein synthesis. Acta Biol Med Germ 1982;41:K9–K16.

15 Winterfeld K, Bijnen AB. Viscotoxin, ein neuer Inhaltsstoff der Mistel (Viscum album L.). Liebigs Ann Chem 1948;561:107–115. [Crossref]

16 Winterfeld K, Kronenthaler A. Zur Chemie des blutdrucksenkenden Bestandteils der Mistel. (Viscum album). Arch Pharm 1942;280:103–115. [Crossref]

17 Klett CY, Anderer FA. Activation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity of human blood monocytes by a low molecular weight component from Viscum album extract. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Research 1989;39(12):1580–1585.

18 Mueller EA, Anderer FA. A Viscum album oligosaccharide activating human natural cytotoxicity is an interferon gamma inducer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 1990;32:221–227. [Crossref]

19 Urech K, Scher JM, Hostanska K, Becker H. Apoptosis inducing activity of viscin, a lipophilic extract from Viscum album L. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2005;57(1):101–109. [Crossref]

20 Büssing A. Induction of apoptosis by the mistletoe lectins: a review on the mechanisms of cytotoxicity mediated by Viscum album L. Apoptosis 1996;1(1):25–32. [Crossref]

21 Büssing A, Vervecken W, M. Wagner M, B. Wagner B, Pfüller U, Schietzel M. Expression of mitochondrial Apo2.7 molecules and Caspase-3 activation in human lymphocytes treated with the ribosome-inhibiting mistletoe lectins and the cell membrane permeabilizing viscotoxins. Cytometry 1999;37(2):133–139. [Crossref]

22 Janssen O, Scheffler A, Kabelitz D. In vitro effects of mistletoe extracts and mistletoe lectins. Cytotoxicity towards tumor cells due to the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Research 1993;43(11):1221–1227.

23 Büssing A, Schaller G, Pfüller U. Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by the thionins from Viscum album L. Anticancer Research 1998;18:4291–4296.

24 Podlech O, Harter PN, Mittelbronn M, Poschel S, Naumann U. Fermented mistletoe extract as a multimodal antitumoral agent in gliomas. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;Art.ID:501796. [Crossref]

25 Büssing A, Azhari T, Ostendorp K, Lehnert A, Schweizer K. Viscum album L. extracts reduce sister chromatid exchanges in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. European Journal of Cancer 1994;30(12):1836–1841. [Crossref]

26 Büssing A, Regnery A, Schweizer K. Effects of Viscum album L. on cyclophosphamide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro: sister chromatid exchanges and activation/proliferation marker expression. Cancer Letters 1995;94:199–205. [Crossref]

27 Büssing A, Jungmann H, Suzart K, Schweizer K. Suppression of sister chromatid exchange-inducing DNA lesions in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Viscum album L. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research 1996;15:107–114.

28 Kovacs E, Hajto T, Hostanska K. Improvement of DNA repair in lymphocytes of breast cancer patients treated with Viscum album extract (Iscador). European Journal of Cancer 1991;27(12):1672–1676. [Crossref]

29 Kienle GS, Glockmann A, Schink M, Kiene H. Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecologic cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research 2009;28(1):79. [Crossref]

30 Rostock M, Huber R, Greiner T, et al. Anticancer activity of a lectin-rich mistletoe extract injected intratumorally into human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Anticancer Research 2005;25(3B):1969–1975.

31 Schöffski P, Breidenbach I, Krauter J, et al. Weekly 24 h infusion of aviscumine (rViscumin): a phase I study in patients with solid tumours. European Journal of Cancer 2005;41:1431–1438. [Crossref]

32 Schöffski P, Riggert S, Fumoleau P, et al. Phase I trial on intravenous aviscumine (rViscumin) in patients with solid tumors: a study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer New Drug Development Group. Annals of Oncology 2004;15:1816–1824. [Crossref]

33 Gerhard I. Problems of randomised treatment studies in complementary medicine. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2000;7:34–35.

34 von Rohr E, Pampallona S, van Wegberg B, et al. Experiences in the realisation of a research project on anthroposophical medicine in patients with advanced cancer. SchweizMed Wochenschr 2000;130(34):1173–1184.

35 Dold U, Edler L, Mäurer HC, et al. Krebszusatztherapie beim fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom. Stuttgart, New York: Georg Thieme Verlag; 1991.

36 Kleeberg UR, Suciu S, Bröcker EB, et al. Final results of the EORTC 18871/DKG 80-1 randomised phase III trial: rIFNa2b versus rIFN-g versus Iscador M versus observation after surgery in melanoma patients with either high-risk primary (thickness > 3mm) or regional lymph node metastasis. European Journal of Cancer 2004;40:390–402. [Crossref]

37 Steuer-Vogt MK, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, et al. The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Cancer 2001;37:23–31. [Crossref]

38 Kiene H. Komplementäre Methodenlehre der klinischen Forschung. Cognition-based Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag; 2001. [Crossref]

39 Kienle GS, Karutz M, Matthes H, Matthiessen PF, Petersen P, Kiene H. Konkurs der Ärztlichen Urteilskraft? Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2003;100(33):A2142–2146.

40 Kantarjian H, Steensma D, Rius Sanjuan J, Elshaug A, Light D. High cancer drug prices in the United States: reasons and proposed solutions. Journal of Oncology Practice 2014;10(4):e208–211. [Crossref]

41 Kienle G. Die gefährliche Formalisierung der Medizin. Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 1983;125(10):21–23.

42 Kienle G. Das Arzneimittel in der Hand des Arztes. Die Pharmazeutische Industrie 1983;45:372–377.

43 Kienle G. Arzneimittelsicherheit und Gesellschaft. Eine kritische Untersuchung. Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer Verlag; 1974.

44 Kienle GS, Kiene H. Clinical judgement and the medical profession. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2011;17(4):621–627. [Crossref]

45 Kienle GS, Kiene H. Complementary cancer therapy: a systematic review of prospective clinical trials on anthroposophic mistletoe extracts. European Journal of Medical Research 2007;12:103–119.

46 Kienle GS, Kiene H, Albonico HU. Anthroposophische Medizin in der klinischen Forschung. Wirksamkeit, Nutzen, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Sicherheit. Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer Verlag; 2006.

47 Kienle GS, Kiene H. Influence of Viscum album L (European mistletoe) extracts on quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review of controlled clinical studies. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2010;9(2):142–157. [Crossref]

48 Heusser P, Kienle GS. Anthroposophic medicine, integrative oncology, and mistletoe therapy of cancer. In: Abrams D, Weil A (eds). Integrative Oncology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2014: 560–588. [Crossref]

49 Rose A, El-Leithy T, vom Dorp F, et al. Mistletoe plant extract in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: results of a phase Ib/IIa single group dose escalation study. J Urol 2015;194(4):939–943. [Crossref]

50 Cho JS, Na KJ, Lee Y, et al. Chemical pleurodesis using mistletoe extraction (ABNOVAviscum((R))injection) for malignant pleural effusion. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016;22(1):20–26. [Crossref]

51 Kienle GS, Mussler M, Fuchs D, Kiene H. Intravenous mistletoe treatment in integrative cancer care: a qualitative study exploring the procedures, concepts, and observations of expert doctors. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;Art.ID:4628287. [Crossref]

52 Kienle GS, Mussler M, Fuchs D, Kiene H. Individualized integrative cancer care in anthroposophic medicine: a qualitative study of the concepts and procedures of expert doctors. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2016;15(4):478–494. [Crossref]

53 Evans M, Bryant S, Huntley AL, Feder G. Cancer patients’ experiences of using mistletoe (Viscum album): a qualitative systematic review and synthesis. J Altern Complement Med 2016;22(2):134–144. [Crossref]

54 Kienle GS, Mussler M, Fuchs D, Kiene H. Individualized mistletoe treatment in integrative cancer care: a qualitative study with anthroposophic doctors on their concepts and observations regarding tumour behaviour and survival. Submitted; 2016. [Crossref]

55 Kienle GS, Mussler M, Fuchs D, Kiene H. Quality of life under individualized mistletoe treatment in integrative cancer care: a qualitative study exploring the concepts, experiences and observations of expert doctors. Submitted; 2016. [Crossref]

56 Carlsson M, Arman M, Backman M, Flatters U, Hatschek T, Hamrin E. A fiveyear follow-up of quality of life in women with breast cancer in anthroposophic and conventional care. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006;3(4):523–531. [Crossref]

57 Carlsson M, Arman M, Backman M, Flatters U, Hatschek T, Hamrin E. Evaluation of quality of life/life satisfaction in women with breast cancer in complementary and conventional care. Acta Oncol 2004;43(1):27–34. [Crossref]

58 Heusser P, Berger Braun S, Ziegler R, et al. Palliative inpatient cancer treatment in an anthroposophic hospital I: Treatment patterns and compliance with anthroposophic medicine. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2006;13(2):94–100. [Crossref]

59 Heusser P, Berger Braun S, Bertschy M, et al. Palliative in-patient cancer treatment in an anthroposophic hospital: II. Quality of life during and after stationary treatment, and subjective treatment benefits. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/ Research in Complementary Medicine 2006;13(3):156–166. [Crossref]

60 Grossarth-Maticek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner S, Ziegler R. Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2001;7(3):57–78.

61 Tröger W, Galun D, Reif M, Schumann A, Stankovic N, Milicevic M. Viscum album [L.] extract therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer: a randomised clinical trial on overall survival. European Journal of Cancer 2013;49(18):3788–3797. [Crossref]

62 Tröger W, Galun D, Reif M, Schumann A, Stankovic N, Milicevic M. Quality of life of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer during treatment with mistletoe – a randomized controlled trial. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 2014;111(29–30):493–502.

63 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Randomized and non-randomized prospective controlled cohort studies in matched pair design for the long-term therapy of corpus uteri cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador). European Journal of Medical Research 2008;13:107–120.

64 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on longterm therapy of ovarian cancer patients with mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Research 2007;57(10):665–678.

65 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Wirksamkeit und Unbedenklichkeit einer Langzeitbehandlung von Melanompatienten mit einem Mistelpräparat (Iscador®). Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin 2007;19:325–332. [Crossref]

66 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on longterm therapy of cervical cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador®). Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2007;14(3):140–147. [Crossref]

67 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on longterm therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador®). Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2006;13(5):285–292. [Crossref]

68 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on longterm therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador®) – Supplemental material. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2006;13(5):285–292. Available at https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/95378 (14.11.2016). [Crossref]

69 Rexer H, Geschäftsstelle der AUO. Studie zur Therapie beim nicht-muskelinvasiven Harnblasenkarzinom. Eine Phase-III-Wirksamkeitsstudie zur intravesikalen Instillation von Mistelextrakt bei oberflächlichem Blasenkarzinom (TIM) – AB 40/11 der AUO. Der Urologe 2016;55(7):963–965. [Crossref]

70 Mabed M, El-Helw L, Sharma S. Phase II study of viscum fraxini-2 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer 2004;90:65–69. [Crossref]

71 Mahfouz MM, Ghaleb HA, Hamza MR, et al. Multicenter open labeled clinical study in advanced breast cancer patients. A preliminary report. Journal of the Egyptian Nat Cancer Inst 1999;11(3):221–227.

72 Mahfouz MM, Ghaleb HA, Zawawy A, Scheffler A. Significant tumor reduction, improvement of pain and quality of life and normalization of sleeping patterns of cancer patients treated with a high dose of mistletoe. Annals of Oncology 1998;9(S2):129.

73 Kunz C, Heiligtag HR, Hintze A, Urech K. Topische Behandlung des Basalzellkarzinoms mit Viscum album, lipophiler Extrakt 10 %, Unguentum – Eine Fallserie-Studie. In: Scheer R, Alban S, Becker H, et al. (eds). Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie 3. Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag; 2013: 315–322.

74 Eldorry AK, Shaker MK, Barakat EM, Abdallah H, Khalifa MO, Elbreedy AM. The Effect of a mistletoe preparation with defined lectin content in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma cases. American Association for the Study of Liver Disease 2008;IASL Posters:424.

75 Matthes H, Buchwald D, Schad F, Schenk G. Treatment of inoperable pancreatic carcinoma with combined intratumoral mistletoe therapy. Gastroenterology 2005;128(4, Suppl. 2):433–433.

76 Orange M, Fonseca M, Lace A, von Laue HB, Geider S. Durable tumour responses following primary high-dose induction with mistletoe extracts: Two case reports. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2010;2:63–69. [Crossref]

77 Orange M, Lace A, Fonseca M, von Laue HB, Geider S, Kienle GS. Durable regression of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma following feverinducing mistletoe treatment – Two case reports. Global Advances in Health and Medicine 2012;1(1):16–23. [Crossref]

78 Werthmann PG, Helling D, Heusser P, Kienle GS. Tumour response following high-dose intratumoural application of Viscum album on a patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. BMJ Case Reports 2014. [Crossref]

79 Werthmann PG, Sträter G, Friesland H, Kienle GS. Durable response of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following high-dose peri-lesional injections of Viscum album extracts – A case report. Phytomedicine 2013;20:324–327. [Crossref]

80 von Schoen-Angerer T, Goyert A, Vagedes J, Kiene H, Merckens H, Kienle GS. Disappearance of an advanced adenomatous colon polyp after intratumoural injection with Viscum album (European mistletoe) extract: a case report. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2014;23(4):449–452.

81 Seifert G, Laengler A, Tautz C, Seeger K, Henze G. Response to subcutaneous therapy with mistletoe in recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2005;536.

82 Christen-Clottu O, Klocke P, Burger D, Straub R, Gerber V. Treatment of clinically diagnosed equine sarcoid with a mistletoe extract (Viscum album austriacus). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2010;24(6):1483–1489. [Crossref]

83 Augustin M, Bock PR, Hanisch J, Karasmann M, Schneider B. Safety and efficacy of the long-term adjuvant treatment of primary intermediate-to high-risk malignant melanoma (UICC/AJCC stage II and III) with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L. ) extract. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Research 2005;55(1):38–49.

84 Bock PR, Friedel WE, Hanisch J, Karasmann M, Schneider B. Efficacy and safety of long-term complementary treatment with standardized European mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) in addition to the conventional adjuvant oncologic therapy in patients with primary nonmetastasized mammary carcinoma. Results of a multi-center, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland. Arzneimittelforschung/ Drug Research 2004;54(8):456–466.

85 Friedel WE, Matthes H, Bock PR, Zänker KS. Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology 2009;7(4):137–145.

86 Matthes H, Friedel WE, Bock PR, Zänker KS. Molecular mistletoe therapy: friend or foe in established anti-tumor protocols? A multicenter, controlled, retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study in pancreas cancer. Curr Mol Med 2010;10(4):430–439. [Crossref]

87 Mansky PJ, Wallerstedt DB, Sannes TS, et al. NCCAM/NCI phase 1 study of mistletoe extract and gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;964592. [Crossref]

88 Siegle I, Fritz P, McClellan M, Gutzeit S, Murdter TE. Combined cytotoxic action of Viscum album agglutinin-1 and anticancer agents against human A549 lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res 2001;21(4A):2687–2691.

89 Weissenstein U, Kunz M, Urech K, Baumgartner S. Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014;14:6. [Crossref]

90 Engdal S, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients. Phytother Res 2009;23(7):906–912. [Crossref]

91 Doehmer J, Eisenbraun J. Assessment of extracts from mistletoe (Viscum album) for herb-drug interaction by inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 activities. Phytother Res 2012;26(1):11–17. [Crossref]

92 Jurin M, Zarkovic N, Borovic S, Kissel D. Immunomodulation by the Viscum album L. preparation Isorel and its antitumorous effects. In: Scheer R, Becker H, Berg PA (eds). Grundlagen der Misteltherapie – Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verlag GmbH; 1996: 315–324.

93 Jurin M, Zarkovic N, Hrzenjak M, Ilic Z. Antitumorous and immunomodulatory effects of the Viscum album L. preparation Isorel. Oncology 1993;50(6):393–398. [Crossref]

94 Kienle GS, Grugel R, Kiene H. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans – systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011;11(1):72. [Crossref]

95 Steele ML, Axtner J, Happe A, Kröz M, Matthes H, and Schad F. Use and safety of intratumoral application of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations in Oncology. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2015;14(2):140–148. [Crossref]

96 Steele ML, Axtner J, Happe A, Kröz M, Matthes H, Schad F. Adverse drug reactions and expected effects to therapy with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;724258.

97 Steele ML, Axtner J, Happe A, Kröz M, Matthes M, Schad F. Safety of intravenous application of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations in oncology: an observational study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;236310.

98 Sugarman J. Are mistletoe extract injections the next big thing in cancer therapy? Johns Hopkins Magazine 2014. Spring issue.

99 Gagnier JJ, Riley D, Altman D, et al. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2013;110:603–608. [Crossref]

100 Gaafar R, Rahman A, Aboulkasem F, El Bastawisy A. Mistletoe preparation (Viscum Fraxini-2) as palliative treatment for malignant pleural effusion: a feasibility study with comparison to bleomycin. Ecancermedicalscience 2014;8:424.

101 Bar-Sela G, Wollner M, Hammer L, Agbarya A, Dudnik E, Haim N. Mistletoe as complementary treatment in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin-based combinations: A randomised phase II study. European Journal of Cancer 2013;49(5):1058–1064. [Crossref]

102 Grah C. Misteltherapie bei nichtkleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom. Randomisierte, offene Phase-II-Studie zur Untersuchung der Verträglichkeit und Wirksamkeit von Viscum-album-Extrakt in der palliativen, additiven Behandlung des fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms. GKH Havelhöhe, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der medizinischen Fakultät der Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin; 2010.

103 Grah C, Matthes B, Happel H, Lemmens HP. Randomisierte, offene Phase-II-Studie zur Untersuchung von Viscum album-Extrakt in der palliativen, additiven Behandlung des fortgeschrittenen nicht-kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (NSCLC). In: Scheer R, Alban S, Becker H, et al. (eds). Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie 3. Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag; 2013: 389–401.

104 Longhi A, Reif M, Mariani E, Ferrari S. A randomized study on postrelapse diseasefree survival with adjuvant mistletoe versus oral etoposide in osteosarcoma patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;210198.

105 Kim KC, Yook JH, Eisenbraun J, Kim BS, Huber R. Quality of life, immunomodulation and safety of adjuvant mistletoe treatment in patients with gastric carcinoma – a randomized, controlled pilot study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012;12(1):172. [Crossref]

106 Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Kontrollierte Studien zur präventiven Misteltherapie bei Myomen, Endometriosen und Cervix Dysplasie. In: Scheer R, Alban S, Becker H, et al. (eds). Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie 2. Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag; 2009: 537–550.

107 Hekal IA, Samer T, Ibrahim EI. Viscum Fraxini 2 as an adjuvant therapy after resection of superficial bladder cancer: Prospective clinical randomized study. Presented at the 43rd Annual Congress of The Egyptian Urological Association in conjunction with The European Association of Urology November 10–14, 2008, Hurghada, Egypt. Abstract P8, 120; 2009.

108 Tröger W, Jezdic S, Zdrale Z, Tisma N, Hamre HJ, Matijasevic M. Quality of life and neutropenia in patients with early stage breast cancer: a randomized pilot study comparing additional treatment with mistletoe extract to chemotherapy alone. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research 2009;3:35–45.

109 Tröger W, Matijasevic M, Zdrale Z, Tisma N, Jezdic S. Additional therapy with mistletoe extracts in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a prospective randomized open label pilot study. In: Scheer R, Alban S, Becker H, et al. (eds). Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie 2. Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag; 2009: 509–521.

110 Tröger W, Zdrale Z, Stankovic N, Matijasevic M. Five-year follow-up of patients with early stage breast cancer after a randomized study comparing additional treatment with Viscum album (L.) extract to chemotherapy alone. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research 2012;6:173.

111 Tröger W, Zdrale Z, Tisma N, Matijasevic M. Additional therapy with a mistletoe product during adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer patients improves quality of life. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;430518.

112 Büssing A, Brückner U, Enser-Weis U, et al. Modulation of chemotherapy-associated immunosuppression by intravenous application of Viscum album L. extract (Iscador): a randomised phase II study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2008;1:S44–S45. [Crossref]

113 Schink M, Tröger W, Dabidian A, et al. Mistletoe extract reduces the surgical suppression of natural killer cell activity in cancer patients. A randomized phase III trial. Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2007;14(1):9–17. [Crossref]

114 Auerbach L, Dostal V, Vclavik-Fleck I, et al. Signifikant höherer Anteil aktivierter NK-Zellen durch additive Misteltherapie bei chemotherapierten Mamma-Ca-Patientinnen in einer prospektiven randomisierten doppelblinden Studie. In: Scheer R, Bauer R, Becker H, Fintelmann V, Kemper FH, Schilcher H (eds). Fortschritte in der Misteltherapie. Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinischen Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag; 2005: 543–554.

115 Enesel MB, Acalovschi I, Grosu V, et al. Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer Research 2005;25:4583–4590.

116 Eggermont A, Kleeberg UR, Ruiter DJ, Suciu S. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group trial experience with more than 2,000 patients, evaluating adjuvant treatment with low or intermediate doses of interferon alpha-2b. In: American Society of Clinical Oncology (ed). American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001: 88–93.

117 Piao BK, Wang YX, Xie GR, et al. Impact of complementary mistletoe extract treatment on quality of life in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Anticancer Research 2004;24(1):303–309.

118 Cazacu M, Oniu T, Lungoci C, et al. The influence of Isorel on the advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 2003;18(1):27–34. [Crossref]

119 Borrelli E. Evaluation of the quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing lectin standardized mistletoe therapy. Minerva Medica 2001;92(Suppl. 1):105–107.

120 Kim MH, Park YK, Lee SH, et al. Comparative study on the effects of a Viscum album (L.) extract (mistletoe) and doxycycline for pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural effusion. 51th Meeting of The Korean Association of Internal Medicine. Translation by Helixor Heilmittel GmbH. Korean Journal of Medicine 1999;57(Suppl. II):S121.

121 Salzer G, Danmayr E, Wutzlhofer F, Frey S. Adjuvante Iscador-Behandlung operierter nicht kleinzelliger Bronchuskarzinome. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 1991;23(4):93–98.

122 Gutsch J, Berger H, Scholz G, Denck H. Prospektive Studie beim radikal operierten Mammakarzinom mit Polychemotherapie, Helixor und unbehandelter Kontrolle. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 1988;4:94–100.

123 Salzer G. 30 Jahre Erfahrung mit der Misteltherapie an öffentlichen Krankenanstalten. In: Leroi R (ed). Misteltherapie: Eine Antwort auf die Herausforderung Krebs. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben; 1987: 173–215.

124 Douwes FR, Wolfrum DI, Migeod F. Ergebnisse einer prospektiv randomisierten Studie: Chemotherapie versus Chemotherapie plus „Biological Response Modifier“ bei metastasierendem kolorektalen Karzinom. Krebsgeschehen 1986;18(6):155–163.

125 Lange O, Scholz G, Gutsch J. Modulation der subjektiven und objektiven Toxizität einer aggressiven Chemotherapie mit Helixor. Unpublished report; 1985.

126 Salzer G, Havelec L. Adjuvante Iscador-Behandlung nach operiertem Magenkarzinom. Ergebnisse einer randomisierten Studie. Krebsgeschehen 1983;15(4):106–110.

127 Salzer G. Prospektiv randomisierte Studie: Operiertes Magenkarzinom – Adjuvante Behandlung mit Iscador. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 1988;20(4):90–93.

128 Salzer G, Denck H. Randomisierte Studie über medikamentöse Rezidivprophylaxe mit 5-Fluorouracil und Iscador beim resezierten Magenkarzinom – Ergebnisse einer Zwischenauswertung. Krebsgeschehen 1979;11(5):130–131.

Zum Merkurstab-Newsletter anmelden

Stellenmarkt

UNIVERSITY OF BASEL
Assistant Professorship in translational complementary medicine
Weitere Informationen

ALANUS-HOCHSCHULE, ALFTER
Junior-Professur für Medizin (100%)
Weitere Informationen

MUTTER/VATER UND KIND KURHEIM ALPENHOF, RETTENBERG (ALLGÄU)
Ärztin/Arzt (50-75% oder Honorarbasis) Fachrichtung Allgemeinmedizin, Pädiatrie oder Psychotherapie 
Weitere Informationen

ANTHROPOS. KINDERARZTPRAXIS, AARAU
Pädiaterin/Pädiater als Partnerin/Partner bzw. Praxisnachfolge
Weitere Informationen

PARACELSUS-KRANKENHAUS,
BAD LIEBENZELL
Funktionsoberärztin/Funktionsoberarzt (Voll- oder Teilzeit)
Weitere Informationen

KLINIK ARLESHEIM
Fachärztin/Facharzt für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin (50-100%)
Weitere Informationen

PSYCHOSOMATISCHE FACHKLINIK SONNENECK, BADENWEILER
Oberärztin/Oberarzt (100%)
Weitere Informationen