Reflexionen zu den menschlichen Nebennieren

Christian Albrecht May
Article-ID: DMS-20564-DE
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14271/DMS-20564-DE

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Die Raumgestalt der Nebennieren betont in der Entwicklung die Dimension des Vorne-Hinten (Splanchnopleura und Neuralleiste), wandelt diese Dimension jedoch ganz in ein Innen-Außen, bei dem die Schichtenformung auffällt. Die Zeitgestalt ist durch eine eigenständige intrauterine Phase gekennzeichnet, in der die sehr großen fetalen Nebennieren mit der Plazenta eng verschränkt sind. Durch die Trennung während der Geburt kommt es zu einer radikalen Umwandlung (Involution) und einem Neuaufbau der Organe, die auch im weiteren Leben immer neue Phasen morphologisch ausdrücken. Die Stoffwechselprozesse des Organs umfassen die Steroidhormon- und Katecholaminsynthese. Neben den klassischen Informationsprozessen der einzelnen Hormonregulationen (Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Achse für die innere Nebennierenrinde, Renin-Angiotensin-System für die äußere Nebennierenrinde, Innervation des Nebennierenmarks) muss auch eine lokale neurohumerale Interaktion berücksichtigt werden. Die rhythmischen Prozesse fallen durch eine ausgeprägte Zirkadianik auf, wobei die Rinde ihr Maximum am Morgen, das Mark sein Maximum am Abend aufweist. Zusammen mit einer spezifischen Blutversorgung zeigen die menschlichen Nebennieren in den aufgeführten Gesten ihr das Bewusstsein mitgestaltendes Potential.

The human adrenal glands

The three-dimensional configuration of the adrenal glands emphasizes the anterior-posterior dimension during development (splanchnopleura and neural crest), and then switching to the inside-outside dimension, highlighted by the development of several layers. The time sequence is characterized by a specific intrauterine period during which the very large adrenal glands are closely linked with the placenta. After birth the organs change dramatically (adrenal involution) and reconstruct themselves. During life several distinct morphologic forms can be differentiated. The metabolic functions of the adrenal glands comprise the synthesis of steroid hormones and catecholamines. At the level of information, the inner cortex is regulated by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis, the outer cortex by the renin-angiotensin system and the medulla by specific innervation. Local neurohumeral circuits must also be taken into account. The rhythmic functions reveal profound circadian behaviour of the adrenal glands showing high levels of cortical hormones in the early morning and higher levels of catecholamines in the evening. Blood supply is quite specific, too. Combining all the above-mentioned aspects, the adrenal glands reveal their important role for human alertness and conscious awareness.

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